Jonathan Clements's A Brief History of the Vikings PDF

By Jonathan Clements

ISBN-10: 1845290763

ISBN-13: 9781845290764

'From the Fury of the Northmen convey us, O Lord'. among the 8th and 11th centuries, the Vikings surged from their Scandinavian native land to exchange, raid and invade alongside the coasts of Europe. Their impression and expeditions prolonged from Newfoundland to Baghdad, their battles have been as far-flung as Africa and the Arctic. yet have been they nice seafarers or determined outcasts, noble heathens or oafish pirates, the final pagans or the 1st of the fashionable Europeans? This concise learn places medieval chronicles, Norse sagas and Muslim debts along more moderen learn into ritual magic, genetic profiling and climatology. It comprises biographical sketches of a few of the main recognized Vikings, from Erik Bloodaxe to Saint Olaf, and King Canute to Leif the fortunate. It explains why the Danish king Harald Bluetooth lent his identify to a twenty-first century instant know-how; which destiny saint laughed as she buried international ambassadors alive; why such a lot of Icelandic settlers had Irish names; and, how the final Viking colony used to be destroyed through English raiders. Extending past the conventional 'Viking age' of such a lot books, "A short heritage of the Vikings" areas surprising Scandinavian inhabitants circulation in a much wider historic context. It offers a balanced appraisal of those notorious sea kings, explaining either their rapid enlargement and its meant halt. meant simply because, finally, the Vikings didn't disappear: they become us.

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In Oxford and Paris, medical instruction was informal at first. By the 15th century (1436), Padua had become the most highly respected of the medical schools, with fifteen medical professors. Universities were originally founded as places to study Christian theology, and women were barred from becoming clergy in medieval times, so women were not admitted. The exception was in Salerno where women were permitted to teach and practice medicine. Though these women excelled and were well known for their medical skills, their numbers dwindled by the end of the 12th century and the profession came to be dominated by men.

Over time, the Knights of Malta began to expand its offerings, establishing facilities elsewhere in Europe. Almost half of the hospitals in medieval Europe were connected with monasteries, priories, or churches. These facilities generally started out as infirmaries for the care of monks and nuns, but eventually they broadened to offer aid to anyone who needed it, with monks and lay helpers providing a basic level of health care, 30 The Middle Ages regular meals, and rest, as well as spiritual guidance.

Monasteries had multiple gardens, including vegetable gardens and “herbers” for cultivating foods and herbs to eat, an infirmarer’s garden of medicinal herbs, and orchards created for growing fruit but also laid out in such a way that monks came to them to both pray and pace (monks frequently pondered difficult questions while pacing). Monasteries realized the benefits of wonderful smells, and the plans for most abbey gardens show that fruit trees were planted near the infirmary so that people could smell the wonderful odors.

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A Brief History of the Vikings by Jonathan Clements

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