By Parviz Kambin
Univ. of California, la. positive aspects emphasis on immunotherapy for imperative frightened process cancers. experiences key constituents wanted for immune responses in the mind. Surveys heterogeneous pathobiology of mind tumors and demanding situations for immunotherapy, and offers present information on medical immunotherapy trials. DNLM: mind Neoplasms--therapy.
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Extra info for Arthroscopic and Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Text and Atlas
Two sizes of oval cannulas are available (Fig. 4 × 10 mm od that provides a 5 × 8 mm id working area; and a larger oval cannula, primarily used for arthroscopic anterior column stabilization, that provides a 10 × 5 mm id working area (4,5) (available from Stryker, Howmedica, Osteonics, Allendale, NJ). I and others have used a series of telescoping oval cannulas (Fig. 2) in order to maximize access to the intervertebral disc for the introduction of bone grafts. These cannulas were designed to ﬁt within the dimensions of the triangular working zone.
Brown T, Hansen RJ, Yorra AJ. Some mechanical tests on the lumbosacral spine with particular reference to the intervertebral disc: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg 1957;39A:1135. 32. Nachemson A. Lumbar intradiscal pressure. Acta Orthop Scand (Suppl) 1960;43:104. 33. Nachemson A. In vivo discometry in lumbar discs with irregular myelogram. Acta Orthop Scand 1965;36:418. 34. Kambin P, Brager M. Percutaneous posterolateral discectomy: anatomy and mechanism. Clin Orthop 1987;223:145–154. 35.
A) Endoscopic view of capsular ligamentum ﬂavum complex; (B,C) magniﬁed view of capsular ligamentum ﬂavum complex, which appears as an avascular structure. Anatomy of Lumbar Spine 45 Fig. 18. (Continued) Arthroscopic differentiation between the torn annulus and nucleus may be difficult. Intraoperative injection of diluted indigo carmine has a tendency to stain the nucleus and the torn fibers of annular tissue while sparing intact annular fibers. Schreiber and Leu originally introduced this technique for intraoperative tissue differentiation (12).
Arthroscopic and Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Text and Atlas by Parviz Kambin