By G. Slutkin (auth.), Prof. F. Paccaud, Dr. J. P. Vader, Prof. F. Gutzwiller (eds.)
In so much nations, basic prevention programmes opposed to the HIV / AIDS epidemic were carried out. mainly, 3 degrees of intervention will be pointed out: - nationwide campaigns directed to the final inhabitants; so much of them are multi section campaigns aimed toward supplying information regarding HIV transmission and protecting behaviour; they use a few of the mass media channels and are frequently directed to sexual behaviour modifi cation; - community-based interventions, addressed to express aim popula tions; those populations were mostly chosen in keeping with either the excessive probability of an infection (gay males and prostitutes) and the trouble to arrive the contributors of those groups (intravenous drug users); - person checking out and counselling, usually supported via public cash or huge non-governmental agencies. significant efforts were dedicated to the advance and the implemen tation of those preventive programmes, either when it comes to human re resources and monetary help. however, in so much nations, a ways much less strength has been placed into the review of those campaigns. This hole isn't defined by way of the truth that evaluate of AIDS/HIV cam paigns is a wholly new problem by way of technique: there are classical tools, constructed over two decades and utilized in different fields of prevention.
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Additional resources for Assessing AIDS Prevention: Selected papers presented at the international conference held in Montreux (Switzerland), October 29–November 1, 1990
Firstly, while the frequency of rectal gonorrhoea is measured in the whole city population, that of HIV is only measured in the cohort. Because the peak incidence of gonorrhoea in homosexual men is in 20 - 24 year olds, the city based figures are likely to reflect cases in this highly sexually active age range. On the other hand members of the cohort are ten years older by the end of the period under study, a fact which is likely to be reflected in their sexual activity levels. Any valid comparison of time trends in STD and HIV incidence must therefore be made between groups whose age structure is comparable over the period of observation.
This is of relevance to our attempts to use gonorrhoea incidence as a measure of the success of our AIDS prevention 39 programmes. We cannot assume that changes in sexual behaviour which lead to a decline in gonorrhoea incidence remove the conditions which permit the continued dissemination of HIV in the population. HIV is probably much less infectious than gonorrhoea. The period of infectiousness may last many years and infected individuals do not move back into the pool of susceptibles. Consequently the transmission dynamics of HIV are likely to be very different to those of gonorrhoea, and it would be unwise to assume that continuing HIV transmission is not sustainable at the levels of sexual contact rate found in the wider heterosexual population.
Defining the possible questions to investigate and then choosing among them is no less a responsibility of the evaluator than choosing the research methods for obtaining answers. c) One productive approach to defining questions includes the explicit statement of both an operational model and a conceptual model for a program. d) Choosing which questions to answer will involve considerations of i) possible leverage that knowing the answer to a given question will have in project operations, ii) prior knowledge of where trouble is likely to be found in a project, and iii) the feasibility of obtaining a credible answer to a question in a timely fashion.
Assessing AIDS Prevention: Selected papers presented at the international conference held in Montreux (Switzerland), October 29–November 1, 1990 by G. Slutkin (auth.), Prof. F. Paccaud, Dr. J. P. Vader, Prof. F. Gutzwiller (eds.)