New PDF release: Astrologia terreste. L'arte della geomanzia

By Stephen Skinner

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America also offered a new cheap commodity, tobacco, and it greatly cheapened sugar that had once been a luxury product of Mediterranean lands. The earliest colony, Virginia, began 34 to export tobacco in 1614; the West Indian colonies estabIished in the twenties and early thirties followed its exarnple. Nevertheless, the value of Arnerican trade was small before the Civil War. The tobacco trade was aImost negligible in value (the official figures enonnously exaggerate the trade by their over-pricing of tobacco), and the northem colonies that clustered around Massachusetts after 1629 sent only a few furs and some timber to Europe.

Another part, the size of which cannot be clOSelY estimated, was 'Flemish' (this term, in popular usage, then embraced all Netherlands citizens), for merchants of Antwerp had their agents or partners in London, just as English merchants had them in Antwerp. The largest foreign share, fluctuating around a quarter of all exports, was that of the Hanseatic merchants. Their trade had originally been with the Baltic and Scandinavian countries, from which they still brought bulky goods by sea, but they increasingly engaged in the London-Antwerp trade in competition with English merchants, sending English goods on from Antwerp to Cologne, and northward to the towns of the Baltic hinterland.

A strong free-trader's attack on the view that the Merchant Adventurers Company was beneficial to English trade. J. A. Van Houtte, 'Anvers aux XV et XVI Siecles', Annales, XVI (1961). Mueh the best aecount of Antwerp at its peak, and the beginnings of the weakening of its economie position. T. S. Willan, The Early History 01 the Russia Company, 1555-1603 (1956). An excellent aeeount of its organisation and trading aetivities. T. S. Willan, 'Some Aspeets of English Trade with the Levant in the Sixteenth Century', English Historical Review, LXX (1955).

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Astrologia terreste. L'arte della geomanzia by Stephen Skinner

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