By Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)
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Courtesy of Drs A. N. Perham. Department of Biochemistry. University of Cambridge. Glutathione is crucial to the erythrocyte functions of maintaining haemoglobin in a reduced state and iron in a ferrous state. It also has a metabolic role in detoxification. For example, it reduces organic peroxides to less dangerous alcohols, itself being oxidized in the process: 2G-SH + ROOH ~ G-S-S-G + H2 0 + R-OH relatively fixed. Several types of higher-ordered structures are recognized (see later), but all are specified by the primary structure.
But they also participate in the energy-producing mechanisms and in the traffic of molecules in and out of the organelles. A cell soon dies if it is treated with compounds that make the mitochondrial membrane permeable. o The smaller cells are, the greater is theIr surface area to volume ratio. 0 volume ratio number of cells 1 8 1000 The greater the surface area: volume ratio, the more efficient the transfer of materials into and out of the cell. o Membrane structure Cell membranes are not mechanically strong structures, in contrast to the rigid and tough cellulose cell walls of plants or the 'string bag' cell walls of bacteria.
2 Changes in the structure of the protein lactate dehydrogenase on the binding of lactate and NAD+. Redrawn from Wynn. C. (1989) Biological Science Review. 1. 16-21. E. H. , New York. Excellent general reference text. Covers many aspects of the composition, structure and activities of proteins. / Globular proteins 33 / Fig. 3 Electron micrograph of haemocyanin molecules from the water snail Lvmnaea stagnalis. The molecule is a cylinder of 30 nm diameter. 4 Large neurons (Purkinje cells) of mammalian cerebellum.
Biological Molecules by Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)