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By Robshaw M. J.

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Structure in the S-boxes of the DES. M. Odlyzko, editor, Advances in Cryptology | Crypto '86, volume 263 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 3{9, New York, 1987. Springer-Verlag. [23] L. Brown, M. Kwan, J. Pieprzyl, and J. Seberry. Improving resistance to di erential cryptanalysis and the redesign LOKI. In Advances in Cryptology | Asiacrypt '91. To appear. [24] L. Brown, J. Pieprzyl, and J. Seberry. LOKI: A cryptographic primitive for authentication and secrecy applications. In J. Seberry and J.

3). If the CFB mode is used, then the previous ciphertext will also be required to recover a candidate pair of plaintext and ciphertext. This also holds for the CFB mode and the OFB mode if full feedback is used. ) When CFB mode is used without full feedback, then the number of previous ciphertexts required will depend on how many are required to construct a complete block of data. For a 64-bit block cipher with 8-bit CFB, eight consecutive ciphertext blocks will be required to provide a candidate pair of plaintext and ciphertext.

When b = n the block cipher encryption acts as a permutation of n-bit values and the average cycle length (and hence the period for the keystream) of a random permutation is around 2n 1. When b < n, however, the encryption provided by the block cipher in OFB mode is an example of a random function mapping n bits to n bits. It can be shown that in this case the average cycle length drops to around 2n=2. Using DES as a particular instance of this phenomenon we note that a period of 232 is not adequate.

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Block Ciphers by Robshaw M. J.

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